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Here is a step-by-step guide to how the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) procedure is typically performed:

Also known as Transcatheter AOrtic Valve Implantation (TAVI)

Step 1: Pre-Procedure Assessment Before the procedure, the patient undergoes a thorough evaluation, including imaging studies (such as echocardiography, CT scans, or angiography) to assess the anatomy of the aortic valve and surrounding structures.

Step 2: Anesthesia The patient is taken into the catheterization lab and placed under anesthesia. The type of anesthesia can vary and may include general anesthesia or conscious sedation, depending on the patient's condition and the preference of the medical team.

Step 3: Access Site Preparation A vascular access site is chosen, typically the femoral artery in the groin. The chosen site is sterilized, and a local anesthetic is administered to numb the area.

Step 4: Guidewire Insertion Using fluoroscopic guidance (real-time X-ray imaging), a thin, flexible guidewire is inserted through a needle and threaded up through the arterial system to reach the heart.

Step 5: Arterial Sheath Placement Over the guidewire, a larger sheath is inserted into the artery. This sheath provides a conduit for the delivery of the valve and other catheter-based tools to the heart.

Step 6: Catheter Delivery of Valve A specialized delivery catheter, which contains the folded replacement valve, is guided through the arterial system and into the heart using the guidewire. The catheter is carefully positioned at the site of the diseased aortic valve.

Step 7: Valve Deployment Once in position, the replacement valve is deployed. There are two main types of TAVR or TAVI valves: balloon-expandable and self-expandable.

  • Balloon-Expandable Valve: This type of valve is compressed around a balloon. Once it is in place, the balloon is inflated, which expands the valve and secures it in position.

  • Self-Expandable Valve: This valve is constructed with a stent-like frame that, once released from the catheter, expands on its own to fit securely within the native valve.

Step 8: Valve Assessment After deployment, the position and function of the new valve are assessed using various imaging techniques, such as fluoroscopy and echocardiography, to ensure it is properly seated and functioning.

Step 9: Closure of Access Site Once the valve is confirmed to be in the correct position and functioning properly, the arterial sheath is removed, and the access site in the groin is closed. This may be done using a closure device or manually by applying pressure.

Step 10: Post-Procedure Care and Monitoring The patient is monitored closely in a ICU for a period of time to ensure stability. Vital signs, including blood pressure and heart rate, are closely monitored. Once stable, the patient may be transferred to a regular room for further recovery.

It's important to note that while this is a general overview of the TAVR or TAVI procedure, individual cases may vary based on the patient's specific anatomy and medical condition. The procedure is typically performed by a team of interventional cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and specialized nurses in a cardiac catheterization laboratory.


In the world of modern medicine, groundbreaking advancements have revolutionized the treatment of heart valve conditions. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), also known as Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR), and Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement (TMVR) are some of the cutting-edge procedures that have proven to be effective alternatives to traditional open-heart surgery. One of the leading figures in this field is Dr. Srinivas Prasad, whose Valve Clinic at Fortis Hospital, BG Road in Bangalore is providing patients with hope, health, and affordable care.

The Evolution of Heart Valve Treatments

In the past, treating severe heart valve diseases often required invasive open-heart surgeries, which came with significant risks and lengthy recovery periods. However, the emergence of TAVI and TMVR procedures has transformed the landscape of cardiac interventions. These minimally invasive procedures involve the insertion of a new valve through a catheter, which is guided to the heart, offering patients a safer and less traumatic experience.

Understanding TAVI and TMVR

  1. TAVI/TAVR (Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation/Replacement): TAVI or TAVR is a procedure designed to treat aortic valve stenosis, a condition where the aortic valve becomes narrowed, restricting blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body. During the procedure, a new valve is placed within the diseased valve, thereby restoring proper blood flow and reducing symptoms like shortness of breath and chest pain.

  2. TMVR (Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement): TMVR is used to address failed mitral tissue prosthetic valve , where the mitral valve does not close tightly, causing blood to flow backward into the heart or doesnot open adequately to allow blood to flow into left ventricle. The procedure involves the placement of a new valve to treat this valve dysfunction and improve the heart's overall function.

Meet Dr. Srinivas Prasad - The Pioneer

At the forefront of these groundbreaking heart valve treatments is Dr. Srinivas Prasad, a highly skilled and renowned interventional cardiologist. With a wealth of experience and a passion for providing the best possible care to his patients, Dr. Prasad has emerged as a pioneer in the field of TAVI and TMVR procedures. His expertise, combined with his dedication to innovation and patient-centric care, has earned him widespread recognition as a leading valve specialist.

Fortis Hospital, BG Road, Bangalore - A Center of Excellence

The Valve Clinic at Fortis Hospital in Bangalore is a center of excellence for heart valve treatments. Equipped with state-of-the-art technology and a team of experienced medical professionals, the clinic provides patients with a comprehensive range of cardiac care services. Dr. Srinivas Prasad ensures that each patient receives personalized attention and the most suitable treatment plan.

Dr. Prasad also practices at Apoorva Superspeciality Medical Centre at Jayanagar 4th T block, Bangalore in the evenings (5pm to 8pm)

Affordable Care for All

One of the most significant concerns for patients seeking medical treatments is the cost. Dr. Srinivas Prasad's Valve Clinic at Fortis Hospital, BG Road, addresses this concern by providing world-class heart valve treatments like TAVI at affordable price at Bangalore by giving good discount till this year end. The clinic is committed to making these life-saving procedures accessible to patients from all walks of life, without compromising on the quality of care.

Patient Success Stories

The success stories of patients treated at Dr. Srinivas Prasad's Valve Clinic are a testament to the clinic's dedication and expertise. Many patients have experienced a remarkable improvement in their quality of life following TAVI and TMVR procedures. Through these minimally invasive treatments, patients have found relief from symptoms and regained their ability to perform everyday activities with ease.


Dr. Srinivas Prasad's Valve Clinic at Fortis Hospital, Bangalore, stands as a beacon of hope for those suffering from heart valve conditions. With state-of-the-art treatments like TAVI and TMVR, combined with the compassionate care of a skilled medical team, patients can experience a new lease on life. Moreover, the clinic's commitment to affordability ensures that these groundbreaking procedures are accessible to everyone, giving patients the chance to reclaim their health and well-being.

If you or a loved one is facing heart valve issues, consider exploring the Valve Clinic and the transformative treatments offered by Dr. Srinivas Prasad at Fortis Hospital, Bangalore. Remember, a healthier heart awaits with advanced and compassionate care.

  • Dr. Srinivasa Prasad B V

TMVR stands for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement. It is a minimally invasive procedure used to replace a malfunctioning or diseased mitral valve in the heart. The mitral valve is responsible for regulating blood flow between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

In a TMVR procedure, a catheter is inserted through a small incision in the patient's leg or chest and guided to the heart. A prosthetic valve, typically made of biocompatible materials, is then deployed within the native mitral valve. This new valve takes over the function of regulating blood flow.

TMVR is often performed on patients who are considered high-risk or ineligible for traditional open-heart surgery due to various reasons, such as advanced age, significant comorbidities, or previous heart surgeries. By avoiding open-heart surgery, TMVR offers a less invasive option for valve replacement, which can lead to shorter hospital stays, reduced recovery times, and potentially fewer complications. Who can undergo TMVR?

The eligibility criteria for undergoing Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement (TMVR) can vary depending on several factors, including the specific patient's condition, the severity of the mitral valve disease, and the expertise and resources available at the healthcare facility. Generally, TMVR is considered for individuals who meet the following criteria:

  1. Failed Surgical bioprosthetic Mitral valve who are high risk for redo-surgery (valve-in-valve TMVR)

  2. Failed surgical mitral valve repair with mitral ring (Valve-in-Ring TMVR)

  3. Severe degenerative mitral valve disease with dense mitral annular calcification (Valve-in-MAC)

It's important to note that each case is evaluated on an individual basis, and the final decision regarding suitability for TMVR is made by the medical team in consultation with the patient.

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